What is the purpose of the Torah?
What happened when Jesus healed the paralytic?
Over the next couple of weeks we are going to look at some of Jesus' teaching methods through the lens of the Hebraic culture of his day.
We start with the story of Jesus healing the paralytic. After his friends ingeniously lowered him through a hole in the roof, Jesus turned to him and said:
Son, your sins are forgiven
That's it. That was enough to send signals to the watching Pharisees, "He's blaspheming", they thought to themselves, "who can forgive sins but God alone?"
On the surface this seems straight-forward and simple enough for us to follow, but it isn't. There was a subtle allusion in this short declaration by Jesus.
The key is in the forgiving. Throughout the Old Testament the usual word for this, is used in the active sense of "I forgive you ... ", in the sense of people interacting with each other. The only place this is not so is in a passage in Leviticus, when it is used in the passive sense, of "being forgiven ..."
"... In this way the priest will make atonement for him for the sin he has committed, and he will be forgiven." (Leviticus 4:35)
This is the sense used by Jesus to the paralytic and he was offering forgiveness to the man as if he was God Himself. Hence the condemnation.
Jesus was no ordinary teacher, or Rabbi. He spoke with confidence and with an authority that amazed some and antagonized others. Yet a lot of his teaching, in its original context and sense, has been lost to us. This is not our fault, neither is it the fault of those who teach us. It is simply a consequence of history, the sad fact of a decision made by the Christian Church in its formative years. It was the loosening of the bonds that tied it to its roots, the felling of the great Olive tree of Romans 9-11. Outwardly it manifested itself as the horrific persecutions of the Jews, but inwardly it suffocated itself by removing all traces of the Hebraic origins of its faith. Not quite self-destruction, but the self-denial of so many blessings. Just as a smoker feeds toxins into his system to feed his destructive habit, so the Gentile Christian Church had taken on pagan worldviews that, ultimately, were not going to do it any favours at all.
It could have been so different. To give you a flavour of what has been lost, we will look at some of the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew, Chapters 5 to 7, and see how first century Jews would have understood the words.
"Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them". (Matthew 5:17)
Interestingly this verse is the only saying of Jesus that appears in the Talmud (Jewish writings), though with extreme penalties attached. It quotes,"the one who destroys even the smallest letter of the Law, the sin is so great, that if it could be done, the whole world would be destroyed". To abolish the Torah is a concept of total horror to the religious Jewish mind, but to fulfil it is to interpret it properly. This is exactly what Jesus had in mind.
I tell you the truth, until heaven and earth disappear, not the smallest letter, not the least stroke of a pen, will by any means disappear from the Law until everything is accomplished. (Matthew 5:18)
Why the translators couldn't just state the actual words used, tickles me. Some translations use the words "jot" and "tittle" for what is described here as "the smallest letter" and "the least stroke of a pen". Why not call a spade a spade and tell it how it is - the "jot" is in fact the Hebrew letter, "yod". And, yes it is the smallest letter in the Hebrew alphabet. The Talmud says, "If all the world gathered to destroy the yod, the smallest letter in the Law, they would not succeed." The "tittle" is the part of the Hebrew letter that distinguishes certain letters that look alike, so I suppose "the least stroke of the pen" describes it well.
"But I tell you that anyone who is angry with his brother will be subject to judgment. Again, anyone who says to his brother, 'Raca,' is answerable to the Sanhedrin. But anyone who says, 'You fool!' will be in danger of the fire of hell. (Matthew 5:22)
This word "Raca" means "empty-headed" or incompetent and its use was a serious matter indeed in those days. This explains the extreme reaction and we find more enlightenment when we read what it says in the Talmud. Baba Mezia 58b declares that everyone who descends into hell will be eventually released, except for adulterers and those who shame neighbours in public. Baba Mezia 59b goes further by stating that a man would be better off jumping into a furnace than shaming a neighbour.
Therefore, if you are offering your gift at the altar and there remember that your brother has something against you, leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled to your brother; then come and offer your gift. (Matthew 5:23-24)
As with the previous passage, this is all about the way believers dealt with each other, rather than their relationship to God. The Talmud says, "The transgression a man commits against God on the Day of Atonement are atoned, but the one against his neighbor is only atoned when his neighbor is satisfied." If you don't get it right with your fellow man, then God is just not interested.
More next week ...
(This is an abridged extract from Steve's book 'Jesus Man of Many Names')